This page is still under construction. Further changes expected soon.
Note that there is often controversy about the meanings of terms in academic research, and words deemed "synonyms" may not be truly identical in meaning.
affect; affective state
feeling states such as emotions, moods, pleasure, pain
- well-being (synonym, ancient Greek). [Often translated as 'happiness' or 'flourishing'.]
- a type of well-being involving nature-fulfillment, roughly along the lines of Aristotle's view; realizing one's human potential. [This is a contemporary usage that is arguably becoming standard in the psychological literature. It is not currently standard in philosophical literature, and may be problematic given that ancient views of eudaimonia often departed strongly from this definition.]
being in a generally positive emotional state, or happy.
- well-being (synonym). [There is some debate about whether these terms are genuinely synonymous, differing only in their connotations, or express different concepts. However, philosophical theories of "flourishing" and "well-being" are generally regarded as offering accounts of the same phenomenon: roughly, what it is for a person's life to go well for them.]
- a type of well-being involving nature-fulfillment; realizing one's potential
- a life that is choiceworthy or desirable, all things considered, typically including moral goodness as well as well-being.
- well-being (synonym): a life that goes well for the person living it.
- a broad state of mind, such as life satisfaction, pleasure, or emotional well-being, or some combination of such states. [This appears to be the dominant sense of the term in contemporary English, as well as in empirical research. It denotes a psychological condition, being happy. This is usually regarded as distinct from the specific, and typically short-lived, emotion of feeling happy.]
- well-being or flourishing: a life that goes well for the person living it. [This is an older and less common sense of the term, but is still in widespread use, especially in philosophical and theological writings. It tends to be associated with 'happy life', rather than 'being happy'. In this usage, the term embodies a value judgment, to the effect that the person is doing well, and better off than someone leading an unhappy life.]
an emotion associated with smiling, and feelings like cheerfulness, joy or contentment. [Often confused with the longer-term state of being happy; on standard theories of happiness, feeling happy is considered to be, at most, one aspect of being happy.]
an attitude of being satisfied with one's life. [More akin to a judgment than a feeling, though it may have emotional dimensions.]
a state or process of fulfilling goals that are implicit in one's nature, or the kind of being one is. [Commonly associated with ancient Greek views of well-being in the eudaimonistic tradition including Aristotle, the Stoics and others, as well as later theories resembling them.]
synonyms: self-actualization; self-fulfillment; self-realization
an approach to a subject matter, such as well-being, that claims the phenomenon is at least somewhat independent of the individuals’ viewpoint. [There is much controversy, however, about how exactly to define objectivism.]
the kind of value involved in well-being, having to do with what benefits a person, is good for her, serves her interests, makes her better off, or makes her life go well for her. [Distinct from other types of value, such as moral value, perfectionist value, or aesthetic value.]
- self-fulfillment (synonym). [More strongly connotes the realization of potential, and associated with the work of humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow.]
- nature-fulfillment (synonym)
- a variety of nature-fulfillment focusing on goals that are implicit in the constitution of the self: who one is, as an individual, rather than (say) one's nature as a member of the human species.
- nature-fulfillment (synonym).
- self-fulfillment (synonym). [More strongly connotes the realization of potential.]
- nature-fulfillment (synonym)
subjective well-being; SWB
a positive psychological response to one's life, including both affective states like pleasure or emotional well-being and more cognitive states like life satisfaction. [The term is variously employed, and often serves as an umbrella term for the different states commonly termed happiness. In some uses it refers just to one of these states, such as life satisfaction.]
an approach to a subject matter, such as well-being, that claims the phenomenon is wholly dependent on the individual’s viewpoint. [There is much controversy, however, about how exactly to define subjectivism.]
- a life that goes well for the person living it; doing well; flourishing; thriving; a happy life. [Concerns a type of value, commonly called "prudential value." This value has to do with what benefits a person.]
- informal: Subjective well-being. [Empirical research often appears to use 'well-being' as shorthand for subjective well-being, without committing to any value judgment about whether individuals are doing well or badly.]
- colloquial: a pleasant state of psychological and physical health. [This is not a standard usage in well-being research, but appears to be common in popular culture.]
synonyms: flourishing, good life, happiness, utility, welfare